Ethnic and religious minority rights in Iran have been subject to government suspicion and hostility, especially since the Iranian Revolution of 1979. The vast majority of Iranians are Shi'a Muslims, but there are also recognized minority religions such as Christianity, Judaism and Zoroastrianism which have reserved seats in the Iranian parliament. Other ethnic minorities include Kurds, Azerbaijanis, Lurs, Mazandaranis and Gilakis among others. All these groups have faced discrimination from the state due to their beliefs or cultural backgrounds. Despite constitutional guarantees of equality for all citizens, human rights groups have accused the Iranian government of violating these rights by repressing minority social, political and cultural freedoms. This has resulted in increased violence in remote regions where members of these ethnic minorities live, as well as a rise in persecution against activists who speak out against it.
Iran has long been considered one of the most discriminatory countries in the world towards its LGBTQIA+ population. All sexual activities outside of a heterosexual marriage are illegal and punishable by death. Transgender individuals can legally change their assigned sex through sex reassignment surgery, though it is often seen as a way to avoid persecution rather than an expression of identity. These surgeries are partially funded by the state, but as Iran is one of the countries that still considers trans people as having a mental disorder - even after it was removed from World Health Organization classification - this approach has led to many adverse effects on patients including misdiagnosis and intimidation when discussing gender identity. Furthermore, Iranian law does not protect trans people against hate crimes or domestic violence.